Estamos empezando a ver un término cada vez más utilizado denominado Covid prolongado (long covid, chronic covid syndrome, covid long-hauler) referido a los efectos a largo plazo de esta enfermedad con síntomas persistentes.  Este término/concepto nace de la necesidad de comprender mejor el recorrido de los síntomas (fluctuantes y multisistémicos) y riesgos clínicos, los cuáles, en algunas pacientes existes como un efecto continuo. A la vez, cada vez tenemos mayor necesidad de conocer el impacto y consecuencias psicológicas y sociales  a largo plazo para las personas y la sociedad.

En ese sentido el NIHR (National Institute of Health Research) Ha creado una página temática de revisión . “Living with covid-19. A dynamic review of the evidence around ongoing covid-19 symptoms (often called long covid)”. October 2020. with covid-19

También la revista British Medical Journal ha publicado Noticias, editoriales, comentarios y cartas sobre este nuevo término:

  1. Mahase E. Long covid could be four different syndromes, review suggests. BMJ 2020; 371 :m3981.
  2. Wise J. Long covid: doctors call for research and surveillance to capture disease BMJ 2020; 370 :m3586.
  3. Mahase E. Covid-19: What do we know about “long covid”? BMJ 2020; 370 :m2815.
  4. Hopkins C, Burges W, Duika L, Kelly C, Deary V, Smith B.C. Managing long covid: don’t overlook olfactory dysfunction BMJ 2020; 370 :m3736
  5. Butler M, Pollak A, Rooney A.G, Michael B.D, Nicholson T. R. Neuropsychiatric complications of covid-19 BMJ 2020; 371 :m3871
  6. Fraser E. Long term respiratory complications of covid-19. BMJ. 2020 Aug 3;370:m3001. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m3001. PMID: 32747332.
  7. Burgers J. «Long covid»: the Dutch response. BMJ. 2020 Aug 14;370:m3202. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m3202. PMID: 32816711.

La revista Nature tambien le ha dedicado varias editoriales:

Y otras artículos específicos y relacionados publicados en otras revistas; :

  1. Del Rio C, Collins LF, Malani P. Long-term Health Consequences of COVID-19. JAMA. 2020 Oct 5. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.19719. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33031513.
  2. Abe T, Ikeda T, Tokuda Y, Ito J, Suzuki Y, Narahara C, Iriyama H, Sato K. A patient infected with SARS-CoV-2 over 100 days. QJM. 2020 Oct 16:hcaa296. doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hcaa296. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33064816.
  3. Baig AM. Chronic COVID Syndrome: Need for an appropriate medical terminology for Long-COVID and COVID Long-Haulers. J Med Virol. 2020 Oct 23. doi: 10.1002/jmv.26624. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33095459.
  4. Honigsbaum M, Krishnan L. Taking pandemic sequelae seriously: from the Russian influenza to COVID-19 long-haulers. Lancet. 2020 Oct 12:S0140-6736(20)32134-6. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32134-6. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33058777; PMCID: PMC7550169.
  5. Jiang DH, McCoy RG. Planning for the Post-COVID Syndrome: How Payers Can Mitigate Long-Term Complications of the Pandemic. J Gen Intern Med. 2020 Oct;35(10):3036-3039. doi: 10.1007/s11606-020-06042-3. Epub 2020 Jul 22. PMID: 32700223; PMCID: PMC7375754.
  6. Halpin S, O’Connor R, Sivan M. Long COVID and chronic COVID syndromes. J Med Virol. 2020 Oct 9. doi: 10.1002/jmv.26587. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33034893.
  7. Kingstone T, Taylor AK, O’Donnell CA, Atherton H, Blane DN, Chew-Graham CA. Finding the ‘right’ GP: a qualitative study of the experiences of people with long-COVID. BJGP Open. 2020 Oct 13:bjgpopen20X101143. doi: 10.3399/bjgpopen20X101143. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33051223.
  8. Alwan NA, Burgess RA, Ashworth S, Beale R, Bhadelia N, Bogaert D, Dowd J, Eckerle I, Goldman LR, Greenhalgh T, Gurdasani D, Hamdy A, Hanage WP, Hodcroft EB, Hyde Z, Kellam P, Kelly-Irving M, Krammer F, Lipsitch M, McNally A, McKee M, Nouri A, Pimenta D, Priesemann V, Rutter H, Silver J, Sridhar D, Swanton C, Walensky RP, Yamey G, Ziauddeen H. Scientific consensus on the COVID-19 pandemic: we need to act now. Lancet. 2020 Oct 15:S0140-6736(20)32153-X. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32153-X. Epub ahead of print. Erratum in: Lancet. 2020 Oct 19;: PMID: 33069277; PMCID: PMC7557300.
  9. Smondack P, Gravier FÉ, Prieur G, Repel A, Muir JF, Cuvelier A, Combret Y, Medrinal C, Bonnevie T. Kinésithérapie et COVID-19 : de la réanimation à la réhabilitation à domicile. Synthèse des recommandations internationales [Physiotherapy and COVID-19. From intensive care unit to home care-An overview of international guidelines]. Rev Mal Respir. 2020 Oct 13:S0761-8425(20)30267-9. French. doi: 10.1016/j.rmr.2020.09.001. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33067078; PMCID: PMC7552976.
  10. Boscolo-Rizzo P, Borsetto D, Fabbris C, Spinato G, Frezza D, Menegaldo A, Mularoni F, Gaudioso P, Cazzador D, Marciani S, Frasconi S, Ferraro M, Berro C, Varago C, Nicolai P, Tirelli G, Da Mosto MC, Obholzer R, Rigoli R, Polesel J, Hopkins C. Evolution of Altered Sense of Smell or Taste in Patients With Mildly Symptomatic COVID-19. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2020 Jul 2;146(8):729–32. doi: 10.1001/jamaoto.2020.1379. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32614442; PMCID: PMC7333173.
  11. Reden J, Maroldt H, Fritz A, Zahnert T, Hummel T. A study on the prognostic significance of qualitative olfactory dysfunction. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2007 Feb;264(2):139-44. doi: 10.1007/s00405-006-0157-0. Epub 2006 Sep 28. PMID: 17006637.

What we know about
Long-term effects of COVID-19


Y ahora vamos a revisar lo último públicado sobre COMPLICACIONES Y SECUELAS POST-COVID, la OMS publico es Septiembre un informe que presentaba la situación mundial tíutulado What we know about Long-term effects of COVID-19.  También la Mayo Clinic desarrolla una página sobre COVID-19 (coronavirus): Long-term effects, con información sobre complicaciones, órganos dañados, rehabilitación después de la Covid…

Y aquí podéis ver una relación de artículos publicados:

  1. Akter F, Mannan A, Mehedi HMH, Rob MA, Ahmed S, Salauddin A, Hossain MS, Hasan MM. Clinical characteristics and short term outcomes after recovery from COVID-19 in patients with and without diabetes in Bangladesh. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2020 Oct 21;14(6):2031-2038. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2020.10.016. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33113469.
  2. Aloufi N, Traboulsi H, Ding J, Fonseca GJ, Nair P, Huang SK, Hussain SNA, Eidelman DH, Baglole CJ. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression in COPD and IPF fibroblasts- the forgotten cell in COVID-19. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2020 Oct 28. doi: 10.1152/ajplung.00455.2020. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33112187.
  3. Azizi SA, Azizi SA. Neurological injuries in COVID-19 patients: direct viral invasion or a bystander injury after infection of epithelial/endothelial cells. J Neurovirol. 2020 Oct;26(5):631-641. doi: 10.1007/s13365-020-00903-7. Epub 2020 Sep 2. PMID: 32876900; PMCID: PMC7465881.
  4. Belot A, Antona D, Renolleau S, Javouhey E, Hentgen V, Angoulvant F, Delacourt C, Iriart X, Ovaert C, Bader-Meunier B, Kone-Paut I, Levy-Bruhl D. SARS-CoV-2-related paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome, an epidemiological study, France, 1 March to 17 May 2020. Euro Surveill. 2020 Jun;25(22):2001010. doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.22.2001010. PMID: 32524957; PMCID: PMC7336112.
  5. Boscolo-Rizzo P, Borsetto D, Fabbris C, Spinato G, Frezza D, Menegaldo A, Mularoni F, Gaudioso P, Cazzador D, Marciani S, Frasconi S, Ferraro M, Berro C, Varago C, Nicolai P, Tirelli G, Da Mosto MC, Obholzer R, Rigoli R, Polesel J, Hopkins C. Evolution of Altered Sense of Smell or Taste in Patients With Mildly Symptomatic COVID-19. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2020 Jul 2;146(8):729–32. doi: 10.1001/jamaoto.2020.1379. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32614442; PMCID: PMC7333173.
  6. Bose RJC, McCarthy JR. Direct SARS-CoV-2 infection of the heart potentiates the cardiovascular sequelae of COVID-19. Drug Discov Today. 2020 Sep;25(9):1559-1560. doi: 10.1016/j.drudis.2020.06.021. Epub 2020 Jun 24. PMID: 32592868; PMCID: PMC7313487.
  7. Buonsenso D, Riitano F, Valentini P. Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome Temporally Related With SARS-CoV-2: Immunological Similarities With Acute Rheumatic Fever and Toxic Shock Syndrome. Front Pediatr. 2020 Sep 11;8:574. doi: 10.3389/fped.2020.00574. PMID: 33042918; PMCID: PMC7516715.
  8. Corsi G, Nava S, Barco S. Un nuovo strumento per misurare lo stato funzionale globale a lungo termine dei pazienti con malattia da coronavirus 2019: la scala PCFS (Post-COVID-19 Functional Status) [A novel tool to monitor the individual functional status after COVID-19: the Post-COVID-19 Functional Status (PCFS) scale]. G Ital Cardiol (Rome). 2020 Oct;21(10):757. Italian. doi: 10.1714/3431.34198. PMID: 32968308.
  9. Cothran TP, Kellman S, Singh S, Beck JS, Powell KJ, Bolton CJ, Tam JW. A brewing storm: The neuropsychological sequelae of hyperinflammation due to COVID-19. Brain Behav Immun. 2020 Aug;88:957-958. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2020.06.008. Epub 2020 Jun 23. PMID: 32590055; PMCID: PMC7309913.
  10. COVID-19 medical sequelae. Bull Acad Natl Med. 2020 Sep 15. doi: 10.1016/j.banm.2020.09.004. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32952187; PMCID: PMC7491487.
  11. Demertzis ZD, Dagher C, Malette KM, Fadel RA, Bradley PB, Brar I, Rabbani BT, Suleyman G. Cardiac sequelae of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a clinical case series. Eur Heart J Case Rep. 2020 Jun 13;4(FI1):1-6. doi: 10.1093/ehjcr/ytaa179. PMID: 33089042; PMCID: PMC7314080.
  12. Denina M, Pruccoli G, Scolfaro C, Mignone F, Zoppo M, Giraudo I, Silvestro E, Bertolotti L, Rosati S, Ramenghi U, Garazzino S. Sequelae of COVID-19 in Hospitalized Children: A 4-Months Follow-Up. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020 Sep 29. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000002937. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33003103
  13. Fiani B, Covarrubias C, Desai A, Sekhon M, Jarrah R. A Contemporary Review of Neurological Sequelae of COVID-19. Front Neurol. 2020 Jun 23;11:640. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2020.00640. PMID: 32655489; PMCID: PMC7324652.
  14. Hamm BS, Rosenthal LJ. Psychiatric Aspects of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine Treatment in the Wake of Coronavirus Disease-2019: Psychopharmacological Interactions and Neuropsychiatric Sequelae. Psychosomatics. 2020 Jul 8:S0033-3182(20)30209-7. doi: 10.1016/j.psym.2020.06.022. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32800347; PMCID: PMC7341047.
  15. Hao F, Tam W, Hu X, Tan W, Jiang L, Jiang X, Zhang L, Zhao X, Zou Y, Hu Y, Luo X, McIntyre RS, Quek T, Tran BX, Zhang Z, Pham HQ, Ho CSH, Ho RCM. A quantitative and qualitative study on the neuropsychiatric sequelae of acutely ill COVID-19 inpatients in isolation facilities. Transl Psychiatry. 2020 Oct 19;10(1):355. doi: 10.1038/s41398-020-01039-2. PMID: 33077738; PMCID: PMC7570419.
  16. Hays P. Clinical sequelae of the novel coronavirus: does COVID-19 infection predispose patients to cancer? Future Oncol. 2020 Jul;16(20):1463-1474. doi: 10.2217/fon-2020-0300. Epub 2020 May 27. PMID: 32456461; PMCID: PMC7255429.
  17. José RJ, Manuel A, Gibson-Bailey K, Lee L. Post COVID-19 bronchiectasis: a potential epidemic within a pandemic. Expert Rev Respir Med. 2020 Oct 15:1-2. doi: 10.1080/17476348.2020.1804366. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33054432.
  18. Koumpa FS, Forde CT, Manjaly JG. Sudden irreversible hearing loss post COVID- BMJ Case Rep. 2020 Oct 13;13(11):e238419. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2020-238419. PMID: 33051251; PMCID: PMC7554505.
  19. Kwaan HC. Coronavirus Disease 2019: The Role of the Fibrinolytic System from Transmission to Organ Injury and Sequelae. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2020 Oct;46(7):841-844. doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1709996. Epub 2020 May 9. PMID: 32386428.
  20. Lennon JC. Neurologic and Immunologic Complications of COVID-19: Potential Long-Term Risk Factors for Alzheimer’s Disease. J Alzheimers Dis Rep. 2020 Jun 16;4(1):217-221. doi: 10.3233/ADR-200190. PMID: 32715280; PMCID: PMC7369139.
  21. Leo F, Wormanns D, Grohé C. COVID-19 aus Sicht der Pneumologie – Langzeitfolgen und Implikationen für die pneumologische Nachsorge [COVID-19: A Pneumological Point of View – Long-Term Sequelae of COVID-19 – Implications For Follow-up In Respiratory Medicine]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2020 Jul;145(15):1086-1092. German. doi: 10.1055/a-1164-4040. Epub 2020 Jul 30. PMID: 32731284.
  22. Levine A, Sacktor N, Becker JT. Studying the neuropsychological sequelae of SARS-CoV-2: lessons learned from 35 years of neuroHIV research. J Neurovirol. 2020 Sep 3:1–15. doi: 10.1007/s13365-020-00897-2. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32880873; PMCID: PMC7471564.
  23. López-Pelayo H, Aubin HJ, Drummond C, Dom G, Pascual F, Rehm J, Saitz R, Scafato E, Gual A. «The post-COVID era»: challenges in the treatment of substance use disorder (SUD) after the pandemic. BMC Med. 2020 Jul 31;18(1):241. doi: 10.1186/s12916-020-01693-9. PMID: 32731868; PMCID: PMC7392642.
  24. Makaronidis J, Mok J, Balogun N, Magee CG, Omar RZ, Carnemolla A, Batterham RL. Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in people with an acute loss in their sense of smell and/or taste in a community-based population in London, UK: An observational cohort study. PLoS Med. 2020 Oct 1;17(10):e1003358. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003358. PMID: 33001967; PMCID: PMC7529306.
  25. Novak P. Post COVID-19 syndrome associated with orthostatic cerebral hypoperfusion syndrome, small fiber neuropathy and benefit of immunotherapy: a case report. 2020 Dec;21:100276. doi: 10.1016/j.ensci.2020.100276. Epub 2020 Sep 20. PMID: 32984564; PMCID: PMC7502253.
  26. Pallanti S, Grassi E, Makris N, Gasic GP, Hollander E. Neurocovid-19: A clinical neuroscience-based approach to reduce SARS-CoV-2 related mental health sequelae. J Psychiatr Res. 2020 Nov;130:215-217. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2020.08.008. Epub 2020 Aug 15. PMID: 32836010; PMCID: PMC7428715.
  27. Reden J, Maroldt H, Fritz A, Zahnert T, Hummel T. A study on the prognostic significance of qualitative olfactory dysfunction. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2007 Feb;264(2):139-44. doi: 10.1007/s00405-006-0157-0. Epub 2006 Sep 28. PMID: 17006637.
  28. Tadolini M, Codecasa LR, García-García JM, Blanc FX, Borisov S, Alffenaar JW, Andréjak C, Bachez P, Bart PA, Belilovski E, Cardoso-Landivar J, Centis R, D’Ambrosio L, Luiza De Souza-Galvão M, Dominguez-Castellano A, Dourmane S, Fréchet Jachym M, Froissart A, Giacomet V, Goletti D, Grard S, Gualano G, Izadifar A, Le Du D, Marín Royo M, Mazza-Stalder J, Motta I, Ong CWM, Palmieri F, Rivière F, Rodrigo T, Silva DR, Sánchez-Montalvá A, Saporiti M, Scarpellini P, Schlemmer F, Spanevello A, Sumarokova E, Tabernero E, Tambyah PA, Tiberi S, Torre A, Visca D, Zabaleta Murguiondo M, Sotgiu G, Migliori GB. Active tuberculosis, sequelae and COVID-19 co-infection: first cohort of 49 cases. Eur Respir J. 2020 Jul 9;56(1):2001398. doi: 10.1183/13993003.01398-2020. PMID: 32457198; PMCID: PMC7251245.
  29. Tay MRJ, Low YH, Lim CCT, Umapathi T, Thio JML, Lui WL, Chan WLW, Chua KSG. Covert Subclinical Neurocognitive Sequelae during the Rehabilitation Course of Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Case Report. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2020 Oct 26. doi: 10.1097/PHM.0000000000001633. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33109908.
  30. Vitti-Ruela BV, Dokkedal-Silva V, Rosa DS, Tufik S, Andersen ML. Possible sequelae in post-SARS-CoV-2 patients: effects on sleep and general health condition. Sleep Breath. 2020 Jul 22:1–2. doi: 10.1007/s11325-020-02152-8. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32700288; PMCID: PMC7375753.
  31. Xiong Q, Xu M, Li J, Liu Y, Zhang J, Xu Y, Dong W. Clinical sequelae of COVID-19 survivors in Wuhan, China: a single-centre longitudinal study. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2020 Sep 23:S1198-743X(20)30575-9. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2020.09.023. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32979574; PMCID: PMC7510771.





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